the Pipe and Tabor compendium

the Pipe and Tabor compendium

essays on the three-hole pipe

Europe: associated pipes

double pipes gallery - Europe

gallery contents

Double pipes, or two pipes played at the same time, are found in sculptures, paintings, stained glass, religious manuscripts and archaeology dating back into pre-history, right up to the present day. Sometimes the two pipes are exactly the same; other images show two slightly different shapes, often one playing the tune and the other a drone pipe. These images are drawn from reality as well as fantasy.

It is impossible to see the mouth-piece on some of these images: some may be duct flutes, others may have single or double reeds or be trumpets. If you have information on the mouth-piece of any of these instruments I would be grateful to know.

I have not included images where it is definately not a variety of duct-flute without keys. Around 1810 an English instrument maker, William Bainbridge, patented a keyed double flageolet which consisted of two English flageolets joined together so that the player could harmonise the tunes that s/he played. Flageolets are therefore not included here.


Duct flute in light wood, with a brass ring at the lower end, pierced with 2 channels. Sound generation by 2 bevels,
placed at unequal heights. 6 double play holes (5 + thumb), plus 2 holes in the bottom. Gives a scale of B minor, at A=440 Hz.
unknown origin

Greece and area
2800-2300BCE Greece2800-2300BCE marble
statuette Keros, Greece

pre-history, cornelian intagio
(carved jewel)

350BCE tomb painting350-330BCE Greek
tomb painting
350BCE - 320BCE350BCE - 320BCE base of a sculpture
from Mantineia
3-2BC statue3-2BCE bronze statue      
CyprusCyprus unknown
11th c mosaic, Cyprus
Cyprus26th Dynesty, statuette, Cyprus unknownunknown
Greece tarottarot card Greece21st century
20th centuryearly 20th century
Croatia and area
In all parts of Croatia, double pipes almost regularly had four to five selection holes on the right side, and three to four on the left, while similar ones played in some parts of Bosnia and Herzegovina, and in Serbia they had a reverse arrangement of holes, so on the left side more, and on the right less. Also, none of the doubles from Croatia had holes on the underside, ie facing the player.
19th c
former Yugoslavia
  20th c djojnica
BosniaBosnia 1960-19701960-1970 Balkans
1895 dvojnice Bosnia1895 dvojnice Bosnia [Horniman Museum]

20th c (drone pipe)
Croatia 4 double pipesCroatia akkordflute and dvojnice 20th century Croatia player20th century Croatia player Croatia front an backCroatia front and back
1937 Croatia Dvojnice double pipescarved Dvojnice
žveglicas, children's toys Croatia CroatiaCroatia Dvojnice was played in various variants in all
parts of Croatia, and various names were used
for this instrument: dvojnice, žveglice, diple,
dvogrele, dvojkinje, vidalice, etc.

For more Croatian instruments see the website
of the Ethnographic Museum of Istria here
and also here.
Serbia 20th c dvojnice

Serbia double being playedSerbia dvojnice

Serbia double pipeSerbia ? Serbia2folk music
1270's1270's Monastery Gradac    
MontenegroMontenegro Dvojenice
Albania cyla-diare
1960's audio and other examples
from the region
1978 stamp1978 stamp
BulgariaDvoyanka, Bulgaria Bulgaria (sound) Bulgaria (sound)
modern dwojnica
carved dvojnicecarved dvojnice BulgariaWest Bulgaria
BulgariaWooden folk instrument with two pipes 21st century Bulgaria
Czech Republic
1910, Royal Dux, Bohemia
  1900-19121900-1910 Royal Dux, Bohemia Royal DuxRoyal Dux shepherd and shepherdess  
HungaryTransylvania and Transdanubia HungaryThere are 6 sound-producing openings on one side and none on the other.Hungary
20212021 Veronika Vitazkova

dvojačka, also called dvojačky

A combination of a 6-hole shepherd’s
flute with an overtone flute. A player
blows simultaneously to both pipes,
one of them having a function of a
melodic pipe, the other playing a
constant drone


Slovakiadouble pipe from Detva Slovakia4Sdvojačka
19th century19th century carved from one piece of wood
1338-1344 Tournai, Belgium
Belgium sculptureLeuven University library, Belgium
1475 Liege1475 Liege, Belgium

15531553 Flemish
© Ashmolean Museum

16201620 Antwerp 1630about 1630 ‘A Roman Triumph’ Antwerp
20th century Belgium20th century fantasy art
double pipes1440 Utrecht, Netherlands 14451445-1460 Haarlem, Netherlands angel playerpainting (anon) angel player

1440-14501440-1450 Utrecht, Netherlands

15581558 Mercury, Netherlands 15971597 Netherlands 17th centurybetween 1609 and 1661 drawing
18th century Netherlands18th century Netherlands 20222022 Luci Horsch

The Stenlundapipa is a refinement of the double flute in which the tone of the drone pipe can be varied. The flute comprises two pipes in one unit, both of which are tuned in a major key. One of the pipes is equipped with small corks that can be used to close the desired number of finger holes. It is made in three different sizes: C, A, and G.

9th-12th century AuvergneAuvergne 11801180 Northern France, double horn
12th century carvingx on 'The Musicians Pillar' church of  Bourbon-l'Archambault
12th century12th century
stone carving on capital
1185 1185 France 12th century12th century Picardy  
12301230 France 1225-1250 Paris, France
(possibly reeded instrument)
13th century13th century
12481248 Paris Cathedral (restoration 19th century) after 1246after 1246 Arras
1275-1325, Toulouse, France 1280-1290 1280-1290 Amiens France
  12851285 horn and trumpet, France ChroniclesJean Froissart,' Chronicles' 
1300 France1300-1340 France [f42v]
14th c.Finistere, Britanny
wood carving
14th century ceiling14th century ceiling fresco
Cathédrale Saint Julien du Mans
1300 France1300-1340 France [f73r] 1300-13401300-1340 France [f80v] 14th century fresco14th century Saint Ouen, Rouen fresco 1400-1410 1400-1410 Paris
14051405 Paris fol 281r 14111411 early 15th centuryearly 15th century
14181418 Paris, France
1415-1430, Paris, France
14201420 Paris 14251425 France
perhaps Brittany
1430-14601430-1460 Burgandy, France
14401440 France
1453 Bourges Palais Jacques Coeur 15th century15th century manuscript Paris manuscriptmanuscript
15th century fresco15th century fresco
Bayeaux Cathedral
15th century15th century ,fresco Lyon Castile 14721472 letter 'B'
France, church corbel15th/16th century stone carving
Saint-Médard de Thouars Church, France
16th century France16th century France unknown medievalunknown
15061506 Rouen Cathedral, Butter Tower 16th century15th/16th century Nice 1686-17251686-1725 classical scene copy 16871687 classical scene
17601760 tapestry with classical theme after Clondion (18thc), statuette after Clondion (18thc) 18th century18th century painting
17651765 encyclopaedia, France
late 18th centurylate 18th century satire 18061806 Euterpe, France 18131813 table decoration, Paris  
  1810-18301810-1830 print ‘Musical instruments from the beginning of the sixteenth century’, France
1850 France1850 'The Flute Lesson' [detail]
18521852 painting
18611861 photograph
VictorianLalique pendant
19th century19th century clock allegory of music 19th century19th century drawing of brooch
19101910 Matisse painting
France France  
Georges Maxim figurine1930's Georges Maxim figurines Georges Maxime figurine
Georges Maxime figurine Georges Maxim figurine 18371837
20212021 Miquèu Montanaro 21st century fantasy21st century fantasy 20212021
medieval reproductionmedieval reproduction    
1871 Austria1871 painting 1966 austria painting1966 painting
13701370 wood carving, Germany 15th century15th century manuscript Central BavariaNeuburg an der Donau (Central Bavaria)
15001500 engraving 15621562 engraving 14501680 painted altar-piece
1800 Germany1800      
statuetteDresden statuette?
18791879 painting of children

18971897 design book page 25

20th c. Volkestedt porcelain
20042004 Foyer of Espelkamp Theatre, Germany  female double pipes player21st century female player, Germany
20232023 Jessy Basu Dortmund  
6th-5th century BCE Sardinia6th-5th century BCE Sardinia
400-300BC Etruscan
votive model
1st 2nd AD Roman
bronze figure
(restored pipes)
1st century1st century Roman
150-200AD Roman
2nd century AD2nd century AD side of roman sarcophagus
150CE150 CE on side of
marble funerary urn
SardiniaSardinia Sardinia carvingSardinia    
13061306 fresco, Padua 1312 painting Martini 13381338 religious painting 14th century14th century Naples
13401340 painting Siena 13401340 miniature Genoa, Italy, 13401340 painting, Florence, Italy
13701370 fresco, Siena
[possibly reeded instruments]
13741374 Genoa, Italy 1370s1370's Modena, 15v
13801380 altarpiece Siena 14th centuryangel painting
1395 by Aretino 14th century14th century Florence
14101410 1415 fresco fragment, Turin, Italy 14241424 Florence
early 15th centuryearly 15th century Siena, Italy
14301430 manuscript, Milan
Donatello1445 Donatello
1447-50 Donatello  
1449-14561449-1456 Bas-relief angel painted limestone 1465 tarot card 14681468 Spechi Abbey, Rome 14741474 altarpiece, Asciano
1470's1470's Mantua, Italy [possibly double reed with circular breathing] 14901490 14911491 Tuscany 14951495Abatellis Palace
Palermo, Sicily
15th century: the upper
triangle of the episcopal
throne in Orvieto Cathedral, Umbria;
includes an angel on a double flute
15th century Italy15th century Abatellis Palace
, Sicily
1485-95 Florence, print
15th century Atri Cathedral15th century Atri Cathedral, Abruzzo
unknownSicily painting
15th/16th century15th / 16th century
15261526 painting, Ferrara 16th century16th century drawing
© The Fitzwilliam Museum
1722 Milan1722 Milan, Italy Anciuti workshop
Spain flute d'accordflute d'accord with key [Venice]
17161716 allegorical painting (detail) old printprint published 1742 Rome 18th c ring  
17701770 fan 1700-1880 print 20th centuiry20th century painting, Florence  
2021  player2021 Augusto Mastrantoni, Rome, Italy Italy doubleMatthew Nardella Bevagna, Umbria, Italy NaplesNaples
unknownunknown, possibly southern Italy unknownunknown, possibly southern Italy
ItalyBenevento Italy
11th/12the century Spain11th/12th century
San Pedro de Ansemil, Spain

970970 manuscript, Cantabria

1005 Pamploma Casket1005 Pamploma casket panel
11th century Catalonia11th century Catalonia
wall painting
12th century Spain12th century Tudela, Navarra 12th century12th century Gelmírez Palace, Galicia Covet, stone carving1107 stone carving
Covet, Catalonia
Toro, Zamora13th century Toro, Zamora, Spain from another angle13th century Toro, from another angle unknownSpain
La catedral de El Burgo de Osma
13th century Catalonia animal13th century Catalonia 13th century13th century Burgos Cathedral 13th century13th century Sasamon Church, Castille
12201220 Galicia unknown date9th-13th century, corbel, Galicia 11th centuryin the chancel, Ansemil, Silleda, Galicia
13th century stone carving13th century Sasamón Stone carvingstone carvings Toledo Cathedral
stone carving
Biota, SpainBiota, Spain
1326 Catalonia1326 Pedralbes Monestry

14th century14th century
Guadalupe, Extramadura
bronze door (part)

Pamplona 14th/15th century
14th/15th century14th/15th century
1441 stone carving1441
Valencia Cathedra
end 15th centuryend 15th century Toledo  
15th century1460-1490 Aragon


15th century15th century
Valencia Cathedral
[probably double reeds]
15th/16th century15/16th century Giovanni Di Pietro 16th century16th century, broken, Xativa paintingRoyal Palace of Madrid tapestry 16th centurysecond half 16th century, Majorca
Victorian1865 by Mariano Fortuny 18801880 painting
19431943 Picasso [detail]
Picasso1946 'Yellow and blue faun' by Picasso
after 1954after 1954 Picasso 'Faun with Pipes’ drawing 19571957 Terracotta tile, Picasso Picasso1958 'White Faun' oil painting by Picasso
1400 Switzerland1400-1410 Geneva, Switzerland (detail of angel player) 1400 angel player1400 angel player c1800 akkordflute SwitzerlandLate18th/early19thc
Toggenburg Switzerland
20202020 Basle, Switzerland Silke Gwendolyn Schulze 20222022 Basle, Switzerland
Silke Gwendolyn Schulze
Poland Poland
2015 video2015 video by Soboku Music  


If you can identify these images and let me know I would be very grateful for the information.

Victorian tiles not known
Ivory plaqueIvory plaque unknown unknownunknown
unknownunknown double pipes unknownunknown unknownmedieval angel


early 20th centuryearly 20th century children's
book illustration, Europe



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